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Canada

About Canada
Canada is a country in North America consisting of 10 provinces and 3 territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean. At 9.98 million square kilometers in total, Canada is the world's second-largest country by total area, and its common border with the United States is the world's longest land border shared by the same two countries. Its advanced economy is one of the largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, service sectors and well-developed trade networks. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a developed country and one of the wealthiest in the world, with the eighth highest per capita income globally; it ranks among the highest in international measurements of education, government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, and economic freedom.
Living in Canada
History - The land that is now Canada has been inhabited for millennia by various Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French colonial expeditions explored, and later settled, the region's Atlantic coast.

France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America to the United Kingdom in 1763 after the French and Indian War, which was essentially the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, the territory was explored and additional self-governing Crown colonies were established. On July 1, 1867, three colonies federated, forming a federal dominion that established Canada.

Climate and Environment
Area wise, Canada is the second-largest country in the world, after Russia. Canada has the longest coastline in the world, with a total length of 202,080 kilometers (125,570 mi); additionally, its border with the United States is the world's longest land border, stretching 8,891 kilometers (5,525 mi).

Most of Canada has a semi-continental or a continental climate. Depending on the exact location, summers are warm or hot and winters are cold or very cold (or brutally cold). The exception is Canada’s Pacific coast, where summers and winters are mild. Sunshine is abundant in most provinces, particularly the Prairie Provinces in the middle of Canada. Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada vary from region to region. Winters can daily average temperatures are near −15 °C (5 °F), but can drop below −40 °C (−40 °F) with severe wind chills. On the east and west coasts, average high temperatures are generally in the low 20s °C (70s °F), while between the coasts, the average summer high temperature ranges from 25 to 30 °C (77 to 86 °F), with temperatures in some interior locations occasionally exceeding 40 °C (104 °F).

Native Canadians value their beautiful natural environment. Endowed with beautiful landscapes, Canada has several national park reserves, forests, beaches and gardens allowing the locals and visitors a host of recreational activities. Canada has several national park reserves, forests, beaches and gardens allowing the locals and visitors a host of recreational activities.

Culture and Religion- The country is officially bilingual at the federal level. As a bilingual nation, Canada also offers superior English as a Second Language (ESL) and French as Second Language (FSL), training for students wishing to learn either or both languages. It is estimated that some 800 million people speak English and 250 million speak French. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries, with a population of approximately 35 million as of December 2012. Canada's culture draws influences from its broad range of constituent nationalities and policies that promote multiculturalism are constitutionally protected. Canada is a melting pot of various cultures. It has migrants from all over the world who lend their cultural hues to the country whilst retaining their individuality. You will see this present in the vibrant range of cuisines and various clubs and associations of different communities.
Education System in Canada
Canada is one of the world’s top education performers. More than 200,000 international students chose Canada in 2011.

Education in Canada is for the most part provided publicly, funded and overseen by federal, provincial, and local governments. Education is within provincial jurisdiction and the curriculum is overseen by the province Education in Canada is generally divided into primary education, followed by secondary education and post-secondary. Within the provinces under the ministry of education, there are district school boards administering the educational programs.

The governments provide the majority of funding to their public post-secondary institutions, with the remainder of funding coming from tuition fees, the federal government, and research grants. Compared to other countries in the past, Canada has had the highest tertiary school enrollment as a percentage of their graduating population.

The Step 1-2-3 tool is a great way to get preliminary answers to questions you have about studying in Canada, from what programs are available to how much it costs:
  • Step 1: Select a program or college that interests you.
  • Step 2: Find out how much it costs to study in Canada based on the choice selected.
  • Step 3: Find out what documents you need to study in Canada before you apply.

Gain valuable work experience and supplement your spending allowance with part-time student jobs for international students. The Co-op/Internship Work Permit Program is available to international students whose intended employment is an essential part of their program of study in Canada as certified by their Canadian academic institution. The work portion of this program can form up to 50% of the program of study.
Working in Canada
If you are planning to work and study in Canada, you might need a work permit.

There are a variety of work opportunities available to international students. A work permit may be issued to an eligible international student for:
  • Working off-campus
  • Co-op and internship programs
  • On- Campus Work Opportunities

Working Off-Campus
The Off-Campus Work Permit Program authorizes you to work up to 20 hours per week during regular academic sessions, and full time during scheduled breaks (for example, winter and summer holidays, and spring break).

Co-op/Internships
The Co-op/Internship Work Permit Program is available to international students whose intended employment is an essential part of their program of study in Canada as certified by their Canadian academic institution. The work portion of this program can form up to 50% of the program of study.

On-Campus Work Opportunities
International students who hold valid study permits and who are studying full time at eligible Canadian public and private universities or colleges may also be eligible to work on-campus at the institution where they study without a work permit.

To work in Canada after you graduate, you must apply for a work permit under the Post-Graduation Work Permit Program (PGWPP). The PGWPP allows students who have graduated to gain valuable Canadian work experience and qualify for permanent residence in Canada through the Canadian Experience Class (CEC).

A work permit under the PGWPP may be issued for the length of the study program, up to a maximum of three years. A post-graduation work permit cannot be valid for longer than the student’s study program, and the study program must be a minimum of eight months in length.

Accommodation in Canada-
Students may choose to accommodate/live either on or off campus while studying in a college/university in Canada.

Hence there are several kinds of accommodation available:
Residence Halls/ Dormitories- In this variety, normally 4-6 students share a flat – like space with individual bedrooms and common living and kitchen areas. This is a good way of making friends, getting to be part of the student community, share chores and exchange cultural tips, while still being able to have one’s own individual space while studying, writing and sleeping.

Home Stays- Many Canadian families enjoy renting out their extra rooms to international students after their own families have moved out. The student gets to stay in a home-like atmosphere and has the benefit of being part of a family. This is often essential for international students, especially the younger students and helps them adapt quicker. It also gives the student a chance to improve their English or French. Typically the student has a room to her/him and shares meals with the host family. Since home stays are arranged by the school/college the student has enrolled in, every effort is made to match the student profile with the host family to ensure safe and healthy adaptation.

Private Accommodation- Renting is a popular system of accommodation. However, in this system, there are no set prices or set of amenities provided. Rents may vary vastly depending on location, the lists of amenities and utilities included. Rents are higher in the city centre areas, especially in larger cities while the suburban accommodation may appear or actually be much cheaper. It is important for the student to make a thorough comparison and read the fine print before signing a lease.

Things to remember when choosing accommodation in Canada:
  • Try to make arrangements ahead of time but be especially sure to do so if you require accommodation during the summer months, and during holidays and festivals.
  • If you are staying in a hotel or hostel, always inspect the room on arrival before making a payment. If you are unsure about the location, ask the local tourism association.
  • Prices can vary greatly according to location and time of year, so try to investigate before you leave. Canada is a friendly and wonderful place, and having made the proper arrangements, you will undoubtedly enjoy your stay regardless of where you choose to live in Canada.
GIC (Guaranteed Investment Certificate).
Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) has launched a new process for showing living fund that is called GIC (Guaranteed Investment Certificate).

GIC is a very simple and transparent process. Knowledge of GIC will help students planning to go Canada for study.
  • To apply for GIC, student will have to follow few steps and submit documents to the required authority. Kindly follow the Link to Know the complete details of GIC process.
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